Greg Atkinson. Chief Technology Officer. Eco Marine Power

Recently there has been a relative surge in interest within the shipping sector regarding the use of sail-assisted or wind-assisted propulsion devices. Examples of these devices or technologies include kites, soft sails, rotor sails and rigid sails - and all of them have been fitted to ships in the past. Indeed the past use of rigid sails on Japanese ships in the 1980’s yielded very encouraging results with fuel savings of up to 30% being reported. Yet today very few powered ships are fitted with these technologies. This is despite the potential benefits that their utilization could provide in terms of reducing fuel consumption and airborne emissions including CO2.

In regards to rigid sails in particular, their potential use has been of interest to me for some years and as part of my PhD research project at the Australian Maritime College, I investigated not only the benefits rigid sails could provide when utilized on large powered ships, but perhaps more importantly some of the disadvantages . The results from this study have now been published in: Considerations regarding the use of rigid sails on modern powered ships and a few of the more notable points from this paper are discussed below. As mentioned in the paper, “a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analytical framework was used to identify key topic areas.” This framework helped to broaden the scope of the areas covered in the study beyond design and engineering topics.

In terms of benefits or advantages the more obvious examples are a reduction in fuel costs and emissions. How sails work is no mystery, but of course they only work when there is wind. Therefore to what extent their use would reduce fuel consumption depends on the wind conditions along the route the ship is operating on. I know that’s a fairly obvious point but the apparent wind direction also impacts how well the sails will work. So very large sails on ships might at first appear like a good idea, but it has to be remembered that they essentially become cargo when the wind is not blowing. Other less obvious advantages include possible improvement in ship’s stability and the use of sails as an emergency propulsion system. There’s also the possibility that ships on specific routes could perhaps carry less fuel due to the fuel savings achieved. This in turn could reduce the overall weight of the ship and lead to further fuel consumption reductions.

The use of rigid sails could also help to improve the brand image (and consequently value) of the shipping companies that utilize them. Already many major shipping companies are actively promoting their efforts to operate in a more environmentally friendly way, as are an increasingly number of major equipment suppliers. It’s worth noting that a small survey included in the research paper indicated that most respondents would have a more favourable impression of a ferry or cruise ship company if their vessels used renewable energy.
Potential disadvantages identified during the study include the cost to install rigid sails onto existing ships or new-builds and the return on investment (ROI) period. Also operational issues both in terms of ongoing maintenance and the variability of their performance due to varying wind conditions need to be considered. The performance of the sails could also be significantly impacted if for example, the ship is moved from one route to another, especially if the wind conditions on the new route are not favourable to the use of sails.

Sails and associated equipment might also interfere with the loading and unloading of cargo, or potentially become a safety hazard due to a mechanical failure. For example if a 40 metre high sail could not be lowered in a storm due to the malfunction of the stowing equipment, then this could be a major problem. In theory very large sails could provide a significant amount of propulsive force under favourable conditions, but just as in the golden age of sailing ships, large sails can also be a challenge to manage when things get rough.

Aquarius MRE on BulkerImpression of Aquarius MRE on Eco BulkerThere are also other fuel and/or emission reduction solutions available including air lubrication systems, scrubbers and LNG propulsion, plus some interesting technologies on the horizon with hydrogen fuel cells being of particular note. So there’s likely to be a mix of such technologies deployed especially on larger vessels. The Aquarius MRE (marine renewable energy) solution that we’re developing at Eco Marine Power for example combines rigid sails, photovoltaic (PV) panels and energy storage modules all into one computer-managed system.

So as regulations, policy measures and market pressures drive shipping away from the use of fossil fuels - rigid sails and similar devices are likely to be increasingly used and incorporated in new ship designs ranging from cargo ships, tankers and RoRo vessels to large passenger ferries and cruise ships. But it’s vitally important not to ignore any potential problems regarding their use or be overly eager to dismiss the concerns of ship owners. Because during the noble effort to make shipping cleaner, we need to also ensure we don’t stifle debate and discussion. Just because a technology is tagged as being “green” shouldn’t mean its use cannot be questioned. Otherwise the solutions that are implemented to reduce fuel consumption and reduce vessel emissions may end up causing more problems than they solve, or may not be as effective as expected.

First published: 16th January 2019. Copyright Greg Atkinson and Eco Marine Power. Article can be republished with permission and accreditation.

A version of this article was also published by Splash Global Maritime and Shipping News as Rigid sails for modern ships – it’s unlikely to be all plain sailing

Details of published paper: Atkinson, G., Nguyen, H., & Binns, J. (2018). Considerations regarding the use of rigid sails on modern powered ships. Cogent Engineering, 5(1), 1543564. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2018.1543564

 

革新的な低排気船デザインプロジェクトを、より多くの技術と企業へ開放

2018年4月19日、福岡 – エコマリンパワー株式会社(EMP)は、Aquarius エコシップTMプロジェクトの適用範囲を拡大し、この革新的な低排気船デザインイニシアチブに新しい企業に参画いただく計画を発表しました。計画の一環として、燃料電池、空気潤滑システム、電気推進など、より幅広い技術を研究し、また、プロジェクトに間接的に関係している船主が、より直接的に参加できるように招待します。

Aquarius エコシップのコンセプトデザインは、Aquarius MRE®を使用して、風力と太陽のパワーを活用するために、ばら積み運搬船、石油タンカー、RoRo船、クルーズ船など大型の外洋航行船の設計を最適化することに焦点を当てた、現在進行中の包括的研究です。この研究は2011年5月にエコマリンパワー株式会社(EMP)が開始し、世界的な関心を集めています。

Aquarius エコシップのイメージ(バルク船)Aquarius エコシップのイメージ

 

Aquarius エコシップの中心部はAquarius MRE(Marine Renewable Energy:船舶用再生可能エネルギー)です。Aquarius MREは、ソーラーパネルやエネルギー貯蔵モジュール、コンピューター制御システム、およびEnergySail®として知られる先進的な硬帆デザインなど様々な要素を組み込んだ、特許取得済みの革新的な燃料節約および排出ガス削減システムです。

Aquarius MREの要素はすでに商品化されており、拡大されるプロジェクトにより、さらなる燃料節約および排出ガス削減ソリューションが市場に導入されることが期待されます。EMP社は、東京で開催されたSea Japan 2018において、EnergySailおよびEnergySail自動制御システム(ACS)の試作プロトタイプを含むいくつかのプロジェクト関連技術を展示しました。

EMP社は船主をプロジェクトに招待することに加え、機器ベンダー、船級協会や造船所にも働きかけています。また、EMP社は、海上試運転の支援や様々な技術の商品化を支援して頂ける投資家および戦略的パートナーを追加で探していく予定です。

Aquarius エコシップ・プロジェクトの拡大を発表するにあたり、エコマリンパワー社の最高技術責任者 アトキンソン・グレッグ は「Aquariusエコシップ・プロジェクトを開始し拡大する主な目的は、現在の風力と太陽光に焦点を当てたものを超え、さらに実用的な燃料および排出ガス削減技術を開発することです」とコメントしています。「また、日本を超えてプロジェクトの範囲を拡大し、海洋クリーンテクノロジー分野の新興企業を支援するために、投資家のご参加をお願いしたいと思っています」と述べました。

Aquarius エコシップ・プロジェクトに既に参加している企業は、株式会社寺本鉄工所、古河電池株式会社、株式会社ケーイーアイシステムの3社です。

プロジェクトに関する詳細は、Aquariusエコシップのサイトをご覧下さい。webpage.


Aquarius エコシップ 紹介ビデオ



エコマリンパワー株式会社について

エコマリンパワー株式会社(EMP)は、国際性に焦点をあてたテクノロジー企業で、旅客フェリーや調査船、オイルタンカー、貨物船などの船舶用に、再生可能エネルギーを基にした燃料節約と排ガス低減ソリューションを開発しています。これらテクノロジーには、EnergySail®(特許取得済)や Aquarius MAS、Aquarius MRE®(特許取得済)があります。

EMP社は、最新の再生可能エネルギー技術を組み入れた持続可能シップコンセプトを開発し、Aquarius エコシップや Aquarius 無人水上船(USV)などのデザインプロジェクトにも取り組んでいます。拠点は福岡。

エコマリンパワー社についての詳しい情報は www.ecomarinepower.comをご覧ください。


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Renewable Energy for Greener Shipping

The shipping industry is actively looking at measures to reduce fossil fuel consumption and operate in a more environmentally friendly way. The concepts of "Green Shipping", "Green Logistics" and "Sustainable Shipping" are now important issues for ship owners, shipping lines and ship builders globally. In addition various regulations and initiatives are being implemented aimed at reducing emissions from ships. Examples of these include Emission Control Areas (ECA's) and a limit on the sulphur content in marine fuels that will come into effect in 2020.

 

Now at sea, as well as on land – the use of renewable energy is increasingly being seen as part of the energy mix. Wind and solar power therefore will most likely play an important role in helping to reduce fuel use and emissions from ships especially as further renewable energy related technologies are developed.

 

Rigid Sails on Ships

 

In the 1980's several Japanese ships were fitted with rigid sails with the aim of reducing fuel consumption. This was driven largely by the oil crisis in the 1970's which resulted in oil shortages and the price of oil soaring. However the crisis passed and when prices fell in the 1980's the viability of rigid sails in terms of cost was undermined.

 

However Japanese ships such as the Shin Aitoku Maru and Usuki Pioneer which were fitted with JAMDA (Japan Marine Machinery Development Association) rigid sails did prove that rigid sails reduced fuel consumption. On the ships that were fitted with these JAMDA sails fuel reductions of approximately 10-30% were reported.

 

Shin Aitoku with JAMDA rigid sails

 

Shin Aitoku Maru fitted with JAMDA rigid sails (Source: Wikipedia)

 

Marine Solar Power

 

Recent advances in solar cell and photovoltaic module technologies have led to solar power becoming a cost effective fuel reduction option on pleasure boats, ferries and tourist vessels. However on large ships the amount of fuel saved through the use of solar power alone is relatively small. So the idea of a commercially viable solar ship seems impractical at the moment....or is it?

 

Perhaps rather than having a ship with rigid sails or a ship with solar panels, a better approach would be to design a system that could tap into the power of the wind and sun together. The challenge in developing such a solution is to overcome many of the practical problems entailed in trying to use sails and solar panels on large ships operating in the harsh marine environment. This idea of combining the power of the wind and solar power is not new, and in the 1990's a patent was granted in the United States for a solar powered electric ship concept that incorporated a traditional soft sail fitted with photovoltaic cells.

 

Ideas and concepts that combine sails with solar power probably pre-date the 1990's however, to date no combined wind power and solar power system that incorporates rigid sails has been deployed on large commercial ocean going ships. But this situation is about to change.

 

Aquarius MRE® & EnergySail® - Wind & Solar Power for Ships

 

Aquarius MRE (Marine Renewable Energy) is a solution developed by Eco Marine Power (EMP) of Japan. It combines sail power (using rigid sails) with solar power and is essentially a ship renewable energy system. This patented wind and solar solution is designed so that the practical limitations of using rigid sails and solar panels on ships are overcome.

 

A ship fitted with Aquarius MRE such as a passenger ferry, cruise ship, bulk carrier, survey vessel or tanker will be able to tap into the limitless power of the wind and sun. These hybrid powered ships will use wind and solar power together as a source of energy and propulsion (along with the ship's main engines) in order to reduce harmful emissions and lower fuel consumption. On a large ship, 1000 tonnes or more of bunker fuel could be saved annually by using Aquarius MRE and CO2 emissions reduced by approximately 3000 tonnes. At the centre of Aquarius MRE is a patented rigid sail technology called the EnergySail. This innovative device can incorporate a number of renewable energy technologies and can be installed on a wide variety of vessels.

 

 

 

Impression of Aquarius MRE on Tanker

Impression of Aquarius MRE on Tanker (Source: Eco Marine Power)

 

A prototype of the EnergySail has completed land-based feasibility tests & a second factory produced EnergySail has been manufactured by Teramoto Iron Works in Onomichi, Japan. Teramoto Iron Works was one of the companies involved in the manufacture of JAMDA rigid sails in 1980's and this innovative company has a long history of manufacturing high quality products for the shipping industry, It is also one of the few companies in the world that has manufactured large rigid sails for ocean-going ships.

EnerySail during Production Testing

 

The marine solar power sub-system within Aquarius MRE is known as Aquarius Marine Solar Power. Components of this sub-system were installed on-board the high speed ferry Blue Star Delos in 2014 as part of a joint evaluation project with Blue Star Ferries. A research paper related to the trials on-board Delos has been published by the Journal of Marine Engineering & Technology and can be accessed via this link: Analysis of marine solar power trials on Blue Star Delos.

 

A second marine solar power system is also currently being prepared for installation onto a large general cargo ship and will utilise for the first time unique class-approved hybrid batteries from The Furukawa Battery Company.

 

Next Steps

 

In late 2017 EMP announced that it was working towards sea trials of Aquarius MRE. These trials will bring together the complete system on a ship for the first time. Additional lab and shore based testing will also be conducted during these trials and variations of the system developed.

 

This article was written by Greg Atkinson, Chief Technology Officer, Eco Marine Power. ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2911-6317

It was first published on LinkedIn on January 8th, 2018. This version was updated on 26th October 2018.

Aquarius MRE, EnergySail and Aquarius Eco Ship are trademarks of Eco Marine Power Co. Ltd.

 

Renewable Energy for Greener Shipping

Introduction

The trend towards using renewable and alternative energy sources on land has gathered momentum over the last decade as governments; companies and the general public tackle the issues of air pollution, energy security and climate change. However at sea, the shift towards the widespread adoption of alternative energy is only now beginning to take shape. Recently the shipping industry has begun to seriously look at ways to reduce fossil fuel consumption and operate in a more environmentally friendly way. The concepts of "Green Shipping", "Green Logistics" and "Sustainable Shipping" are now important issues for ship owners, shipping lines and ship builders globally. In addition various regulations and initiatives are being implemented aimed at reducing emissions from ship. Examples of these include Emission Control Areas (ECA's) and a limit on the sulphur content in marine fuels.

Now at sea, as well as on land – the use of renewable energy is increasingly being seen as part of the energy mix. Wind and solar power therefore will most likely play an important role in helping to reduce fuel use and emissions from ships, especially as further renewable energy related technologies are developed.

Rigid Sails on Ships

In the 1980's several Japanese ships were fitted with rigid sails with the aim of reducing fuel consumption. This was driven largely by the oil crisis in the 1970's which resulted in oil shortages and the price of oil soaring. However the crisis passed and when prices fell in the 1980's the viability of rigid sails in terms of cost was undermined. JAMDA Sails on Shin Aitoku MaruShin Aitoku with JAMDA rigid sails

Despite this Japanese ships such as the Shin Aitoku Maru and Usuki Pioneer that were fitted with JAMDA (Japan Marine Machinery Development Association) rigid sails did prove that rigid sails reduced fuel consumption. On the ships that were fitted with JAMDA sails fuel reductions of approximately 10-30% were reported.

Various rigid sail concepts have also been applied to a range of smaller vessels but these have not gained widespread acceptance to date on either large ships due to numerous engineering & operational challenges.

Marine Solar Power

Another way to reduce fuel consumption on-board ships is through the use of solar power. Recent advances in solar cell and photovoltaic (PV)module technologies have led to solar power becoming a cost effective fuel reduction option on pleasure boats, ferries and tourist vessels. However on large ships the amount of fuel saved through the use of solar power alone is relatively small. So the idea of a commercially viable solar ship seems impractical at the moment..or is it?

Solar Powered Electric Ship System (1992)Solar Powered Electric Ship System (1992)Perhaps rather than having a ship with rigid sails or a ship with solar panels, a better approach would be to design a system that could tap into the power of the wind and sun together? The challenge in developing such a solution would entail dealing with many practical problems related to use sails and solar panels on large powered ships operating in the harsh marine environment.

This idea of combining the power of the wind and solar power is not new though, and in the 1990's a patent was granted in the United States for a solar powered electric ship concept that incorporated a traditional soft sail fitted with photovoltaic cells.

Ideas and concepts that combine sails with solar power probably pre-date the 1990's however to date, no combined wind power and solar power system that incorporates rigid sails has been deployed on large commercial ocean going ships. But this situation is about to change.

Aquarius MRE® - Wind & Solar Power for Ships

Eco Ship with Aquarius MRE (System)Aquarius Eco Ship Concept Design with Aquarius MRE Aquarius MRE (Marine Renewable Energy) is a solution developed by Eco Marine Power that combines sail power (using rigid sails) with solar power. This patented wind and solar solution is designed so that the practical limitations of using rigid sails and solar panels on ships are overcome.
EnergySail Computer Control SystemEnergySail Computer Control System
A ship fitted with Aquarius MRE such as a passenger ferry, cruise ship, bulk carrier, survey vessel or tanker will be able to tap into the limitless power of the wind and sun.

These hybrid powered ships will use wind and solar power together as a source of energy and propulsion (along with the ship's main engines) in order to reduce harmful emissions and lower fuel consumption.

On a large ship, 1000 tonnes or more of bunker fuel could be saved annually by using Aquarius MRE and CO2 emissions reduced by approximately 3000 tonnes.

An on-board solar power array can either be mounted on the sails or on deck areas of the vessel (or both). The solar panel array(s) will in turn charge batteries or the power can be fed into the DC or AC power distribution system. The energy stored in the batteries could also be a useful source of emergency or back-up power. For a typical system, hybrid battery technology from the Furukawa Battery Company of Japan will be used.

Unique EnergySail® Technology

At the centre of Aquarius MRE is a patented rigid sail technology called the EnergySail. This innovative device can incorporate a number of renewable energy technologies and can be installed on a wide variety of ships. The EnergySail can be used as a stand-alone device or as part of an array and is positioned automatically by a computer control system developed jointly by Eco Marine Power and KEI System Ltd of Osaka, Japan. This computer system is known as the EnergySail Automated Control System (ACS). In addition to control functions the EnergySail ACS will also incorporate a management interface and a data logging capability.

Folding JAMDA Sail at Teramoto Iron WorksFolding JAMDA Sail manufactured by Teramoto Iron Works in the 1980'sIn a link with history, EnergySail production and engineering design is being carried out by Teramoto Iron Works of Onomichi, Japan. Teramoto Iron Works was one of the companies involved in the manufacture of JAMDA rigid sails in 1980's. This innovative company has a long history of manufacturing high quality products for the shipping industry, and is one of the few companies in the world that has manufactured and installed large rigid sails on ships.

To interface with other equipment on the ship such as the main engines & generators, another computer system jointly developed by Eco Marine Power and KEI System - the Aquarius MAS (Management & Automation System) - is incorporated into the Aquarius MRE system architecture. This marine computer system also calculates vessel airborne emissions, monitors fuel consumption, logs data, displays system alarms and can interface with a range of marine renewable energy solutions.

Aquarius MRE with its combination of technologies will offer ship owners and shipping companies an attractive return on investment (ROI) proposition. This combined with the environmental benefits will help this hybrid marine power technology gain widespread acceptance across the maritime industry.

The technologies being developed or incorporated into Aquarius MRE have applications outside shipping and are also suitable for land based renewable energy systems or offshore marine energy projects.

The Future is Now!

Marine Solar Power on Blue Star DelosAquarius Marine Solar Power on Blue Star DelosThe concept of using wind and solar power together on ships is not science fiction, nor is it decades away. Eco Marine Power has completed lab tests of the EnergySail along with the EnergySail ACS, and sea trials involving elements of Aquarius MRE have commenced. The first factory produced EnergySail has been manufactured and is undergoing testing at the Onomichi MTTC (Maritime Tech Test Center) before being installed on a ship for sea trials.

In October 2014, Eco Marine Power along with a number of strategic partners installed the first Aquarius Marine Solar Power solution on the Blue Star Delos - a large high speed passenger and car ferry operated by Blue Star Ferries in Greece.

This system includes an Aquarius MAS CPU/AGU, ILS unit, MPPT charge controllers, an energy storage solution (from The Furukawa Battery Company) and marine-grade solar panels.

In July 2017, Eco Marine Power announced that planning for sea trials has started. This work will lead to the world's first deployment of an integrated rigid sail and solar power system on a ship using EMP's EnergySail technology!

This article was written by Greg Atkinson, Director & Chief Technology Officer at Eco Marine Power. He can be followed on twitter @gregatkinson_jp

First published December 3rd 2011. Updates are revisions have been made since that date. Latest revision 31st October 2018.

© 2010-2018 Eco Marine Power. Aquarius MRE and EnergySail are registered trademarks of Eco Marine Power Co. Ltd. Aquarius Eco Ship, Aquarius Marine Solar Power and Aquarius MAS are trademarks of Eco Marine Power Co. Ltd.

Image Credits

1. Shin Aitoku Maru. Source: Wikipedia Commons.

2. Solar powered electric ship system. US Patent 5131341A. Edwin Newman. 1992.

3. Aquarius Eco Ship with Aquarius MRE (System). Copyright Eco Marine Power Co., Ltd. Concept design by Greg Atkinson.

4. EnergySail Computer Control System. Copyright Eco Marine Power Co., Ltd.

5. Folding JAMDA Sail at Teramoto Iron Works in the 1980's - used with permission. Copyright Teramoto Iron Works Co., Ltd.

6. Aquarius Marine Solar Power on Blue Star Delos. Copyright Eco Marine Power Co., Ltd.

 

Further Reading: Aquarius Wind and Solar Marine Power System Investor Information Company Profile

 

South China Morning Post - October 19th 2012.

With the importance of a green, sustainable future, it’s high-time to bring sails back on ships. Focused on designing eco-friendly power and propulsion systems for ships, Eco Marine Power (EMP) is determined to make this happen through the EnergySail, its innovative rigid sail.

The company last month completed the high-level design for its EnergySascmp_emp_20121019il technology, which is the foundation for a host of solutions. Among its revolutionary solutions is the Aquarius MRE System, which enables ships to harness wind and solar power using an integrated system of EnergySails, solar panels and energy storage modules. Self-contained and scalable, Aquarius can be configured for different vessels.

With mechanisms to protect the sails and ship from damage, it translates to annual fuel savings of about 10 per cent for Capesize bulkers and up to 40 per cent for specialised vessels. EMP collaborated with established maritime equipment suppliers Corvus Energy, KEI System and Sekigahara Seisakusho to bring Aquarius into prototype testing this year.

EMP has started tests on Aquarius’ control system and expects to be testing a complete prototype within the year. Sea trials of the complete system are scheduled for next year.

“We’re trying to get wind back on ships and prove to the shipping companies that it’s safe and cost-effective,” says Greg Atkinson, EMP director.

Based in Fukuoka, EMP continuously liaises with shipping companies, government agencies and other development partners to advance technological innovations. It was a finalist in last year’s prestigious Sustainable Shipping Awards.

EMP is eyeing long-term partnerships with progressive shipping lines and shipyards in Asia, and it welcomes environmentally committed investors to help with patents processing and technology development.

Hoping to commercialise Aquarius within five years, EMP is open to licensing opportunities. It will also work on a low-cost version for developing nations and other designs such as hybrid systems and offshore power plants.

“The technology is portable and any shipbuilding nation or emerging economy has the resources to build this,” Atkinson says.

This article appeared in the South China Morning Post in the Japan Country Report on the 19th October 2012.

EnergySail and Aquarius MRE System are trademarks of Eco Marine Power Co. Ltd.

Further Reading: EnergySail - Wind & Solar Power for Low Emission Shipping!

 

         
 

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Hybrid marine power solutions including solar power save fuel, reduce pollution and are cost effective. Eco Marine Power is at the forefront of developing low emission & fuel saving solutions for ships, Our computer systems also provide a control interface between renewable energy & other systems on-board ships.
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Eco Marine Power is at the forefront of providing innovative marine renewable energy technologies for shipping that harness the power of the sun & wind. These solutions include Aquarius MRE, EnergySail & Aquarius Marine Solar Power. These reduce fuel consumption, lower noxious gas emissions and deliver cost benefits.
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Aquarius Management & Automation System or Aquarius MAS is a cost effective alarm handling, monitoring & data logging platform suitable for a wide range of ships. The system is based upon the reliable KEI 3240 Data Logger and is class approved. Aquarius MAS can also monitor fuel use & calculate vessel emissions.
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Our design & consulting services include green ship & eco ship concept designs, renewable energy surveys, renewable energy systems design & consulting support for new ship and retrofit projects. We work with ship owners, ship managers and ship yards to develop the right renewable energy solution for their needs.
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